Tools exist that have been purposefully designed to incorporate ecosystem services. Assessment and valuation of ecosystem services is a key activity within these tools, influenced by ecological economics, environmental accounting and resource mapping, as well as models of land use change and impacts.

Ecosystem services tools are needed to assess ecosystem functions, benefits and trade-offs systematically across the full spectrum of services, rather than doing so on a fragmented service-by-service basis.

Read a short literature review about Ecosystem Services tools

Read a full literature review about Ecosystem Services tools (with reference list)

Read the 'Shared and cultural values assessment handbook'

Specific guidance has been developed to incorporate the Ecosystem Approach within the following Ecosystem Services tools:

Additional short reviews of Ecosystem Services tools