Incentives consist of various non-fiscal and non-regulatory tools, ranging from the financial to the reputational and may incorporate ‘nudges’. Similarly, disincentives threaten some form of punishment if an inappropriate behaviour is performed. Incentives include taxes, agri-environment schemes and private payment for ecosystem service schemes and offer an important means for securing land management goals which may protect or enhance the provision of ecosystem services.

Read a short literature review about Incentive tools

Read a full literature review about Incentive tools (with reference list)

Specific guidance has been developed to incorporate the Ecosystem Approach within the following Incentive tools:

Additional short reviews of Incentive tools