The Plan phase translates the preferred option/actions into a SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound) programme for successful delivery. For the policy, plan, project or programme (PPPP), it is important to identify: what needs to be done, how it will be done, who will do it and by when. The outputs of this stage need to be communicated with those who are charged with the Delivery phase.

Key questions and tools

  • How can ecosystem services be embedded within the planning phase?
  • What is the bundle of tools that can optimise the delivery of the policy, plan, project or programme (PPPP)?
  • Look at interplay of Regulatory Tools, Incentive Tools, Valuation Tools and Ecosystem Services Tools. Use the Futures Tools toolkit to assess and plan ahead.
  • What is the appropriate scale this PPPP affects?
  • Consider the creation of new markets for ecosystem services to support enhancement (see the Payments for Ecosystem Services tool).
  • Consider use of planning conditions and agreements to support and enhance ecosystem services.
  • Consider community co-management and/or ownership of ecosystem services and assets.
  • What are the key lessons that you have learned during this stage?
  • Keep a record of these for the Evaluate stage.

Prompts for discussion

  • Within the plan and from the previous assessment stages, identify how and which ecosystem services will be enhanced and/or protected (related to your overall aims and objectives).
  • Identify the key milestones that the policy, plan, project or programme (PPPP) should achieve.
  • Identify who is responsible for delivering the milestones of the PPPP.
  • Identify how the plan is going to be communicated to those delivering the plan and those affected by the PPPP.
  • Involve stakeholders from previous stages in the planning and subsequent delivery phases, where appropriate, to build ownership.
  • What are the key lessons emerging from the Ideas, Survey, Assess and Plan stages thus far? Use the suite of indicators developed in the Ideas phase to help.